Posts Tagged ‘solar cell’

8 August

Dr. Christopher Case (of Oxford PV) Discusses Game-Changing Future Transformer of Solar Power Generation-Perovskite Based Solar Cell Technology

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Dear Friends, Visitors/Viewers/Readers,


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I  saved the most potential game-changing solar technology in the last interview spot, the update of Perovskite-based solar cell technology with the Chief Technology Officer of Oxford PV, Dr. Christopher Case, of this series of Intersolar North America 2015 interviews. Recalling one of our earlier posts, I wrote about Perovskite, a calcium titanium oxide mineral discovered in the Ural Mountains of Russia in 1839. This new old material is generating quite an explosive buzz because scientists have found, in recent years, that it is a great material to be used in solar absorption applications. It can be made simply and inexpensively by using common wet chemistry lab methods and low cost equipments instead of the expensive deposition equipments common in the semiconductor industry. To take a look at how this process is made cheap and accessible, I’m sharing the video below:


These solar (photovoltaic) cells are made in tandem (layer by layer) fashion on a specially coated glass support. In the video above:

  1. the glass is coated with a dense layer of titanium dioxide, by robotic arm, to prevent electrical charge generated by sunlight from leaking out of the cell.
  2. a less dense porous oxide layer covers the dense oxide layer (usually titanium dioxide, other oxides may also be used).
  3. a simple high speed spin coater deposits this layer from solution and spreads this coating evenly across the device.
  4. heating this glass/device in an oven conditions it for solar cell use.
  5. prepare the Perovskite material (which absorbs in the broad range of solar spectrum) by combining 2 precursor materials:   PbI2 (lead iodide) & CH6IN (methylammonium iodide)
  6. drip the liquid phase mixture (from 5.) onto the oxide coated device (from 4.)
  7.  spin the resulting device in 6 to assure even coating
  8.  applying halide solution
  9.  heating the device resulting from 8 on a hot plate–>spontaneously crystallizes precursors in freshly deposited liquid
  10.  color changes also result from crystallization process resulting from 9.

Such tandem product has the advantage of being able to be introduced into existing infrastructure of current silicon module manufacturing process, boosting its efficiency. With added few steps toward the end of the production line, the coating (equivalent to second solar cell) takes advantage of the blue portion of the solar spectrum and may improve the solar cell efficiency by 20-25% above the underlying silicon. The fact that Perovskite-based solar cell technology is of earth abundant material also insures its availability and low cost. Its high absorption in solar spectrum enables it to have comparable characteristics to that of gallium arsenide. Its ability to change its sensitivity to different band gaps in solar spectrum allows it to make different architectures in tandem solar cells. It can truly be considered as the Custom Solar Absorber! In short term,  Perovskite-based solar cell may boost the efficiency level of existing technology and in the long term, it may be a stand-alone technology with closer efficiency level to that of gallium arsenide but at a much lower cost. It may potentially be sprayed, ink-jet printed, dip-coated, etc. It is no wonder that Dr. Case commented, “the perovskite in solar application is the fastest increasing photovoltaic efficiency of any solar photovoltaic thin film material ever! In just a few years, it went from a lab efficiency of about 6% to well over 17%…the material is a very good solar absorber….bringing the material to 25% efficiency in a monolithic layer and 30%+ in a perovskite tandem layer….potentially the future replacement for silicon.”

The perovskite thin-film solar cells, is currently being developed by Oxford PV (a spin-out from the University of Oxford in 2009-2010 to commercialize this technology, which has exclusively licensed the intellectual property developed by Professor Henry Snaith and his team of 20 scientists). Below, Professor Henry Snaith will embellish upon the development of this solar technology:

Oxford PV plans on continuing to optimize this technology’s cell efficiency and accelerate the transfer of the technology into production. Furthermore, it aims to develop the range of substrates to which the cells can be applied. With its promising future, we, the solar enthusiasts and investors alike, should keep our eyes on Oxford PV in the coming years. In the next few years, we anticipate that Dr. Henry Snaith and his team of scientists will continue to tackle challenges in trap densities, doping densities, mobility, mechanisms for free carrier generations, etc., to further improve device performance. You will find that many in the solar industry share the optimism of Professor Henry Snaith and Dr. Christopher Case.

For those of you interested in more details about Perovskite-based solar cell technology, please refer to the two videos below:

1. Introducing Perovskite Solar Cells to Undergraduates:


2. Perovskite Solar Cells: From Device Fabrication to Device Degradation-Timothy Kelly:

~have a bright and sunny day~
Gathered, written, edited, and posted by sunisthefuture-Susan Sun Nunamaker

Any comments and suggestions are welcomed at sunisthefuture@gmail.com

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17 October

World’s Top PV Power Stations, as of Oct., 2012

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Dear Friends & Visitors/Viewers/Readers,

(Please click on red links below)

Solar PV cells convert sunlight into electricity and many solar PV stations have been built over the years. For a quick recap of  “What Is Solar Cell” at Sun Is The Future, take a look at these links below:

  1. What Is Solar Cell (1)
  2. What Is Solar Cell (2)
  3. What Is Solar Cell (3)
  4. What Is Solar Cell (4)
  5. What Is Solar Cell (5)
  6. What Is Solar Cell (6)
  7. What Is Solar Cell (7)Please allow me to share with you some of the top photovoltaic  power stations that are larger than 25 MW in current net capacity. These stations have progressively increased in size over the past decade.  At this very moment, October of 2012, the largest three individual photovoltaic (PV) power plants in the world are Agua Caliente Solar Project (Arizona of USA, 247 MW connected and to increase to 397 MW when completed), Charanka Solar Park (India, 214 MW connected and to increase to 500 MW when completed), Golmud Solar Park (China, 200 MW connected with annual production of  317 GWh and completed in October, 2011). But keep in mind that solar industry is very dynamic and therefore these order may be in flux.  Here at Sun Is The Future, we will keep you informed of these fluctuations.  Please see the chart below, as of October, 2012:  *Note: I need to check on Agua Caliente’s maximum generating capacity because many sources indicated 290 MW whereas Wikipeida indicated 397 MW. I will get back to you on this after further investigation.

World's Top PV Power Stations As of Oct., 2012 (Source: Wikipedia)

More on these top three Solar projects will follow in our future posts at http://www.sunisthefuture.net

Any questions/comments/suggestions are welcomed at sunisthefuture@gmail.com

~have a bright and sunny day~

gathered, written, and posted by sunisthefuture-Susan Sun Nunamaker, sunisthefuture@gmail.com
Homepage:  http://www.sunisthefuture.net


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7 May

Solar Future From The Eyes Of A Twelve-Year-Old, Solar Cells In 3D

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Dear Readers,

(Please click onred linksbelow)

If you are in favor of renewable,  clean, or solar energy, please sign this petition for FIT/CLEAN Program, accessible at http://sunisthefuture.net/?page_id=1065 Thank you very much.

——————————————————————————————————————————————————————

Dear Solar Enthusiasts,

I’ve been hearing various reports about 3D solar cells and question as to whether a 12-year old is truly responsible for its discovery.  After much digging, this is what I’ve come to conclude and ready to share with all of you:

Back in 2008, according to one of the reports of KATU.com by a reporter named Susan Harding, a 12-year-old student of Meadow Park Middle School of Beaverton, Oregon, William Yuan,

William Yuan, 12 Year Old Optimal 3D Solar Cell Designer/Creator/Genius

had invented something that could revolutionize solar energy.  It all started with Legos.  William Yuan, despite his tender age, had already studied nuclear fusion and nanotechnology by the time he reached seventh grade.  After he learned nanotechnology to make robots take off, this seventh grader got an idea inspired by the sun.   Encouraged by his Meadow Park Middle School science teacher, William Yuan started his quest in search of a different/new kind of solar cell.  For two years, he researched other scientists’ work and came up with his own unique design that would work for visible and UV light.  Noted: he based his research on some ground-breaking, graduate level work on 3D solar cells done at Georgia Tech and Notre Dame. He also received help from professional mentors at Portland State University’s Center for Nanofabrication and Electron Microscopy, Applied Materials Inc., and the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of California at Berkeley.  He fully documented all of his sources and never implied that he invented 3D solar cell. Various graduate level research had focused on one or another design criteria, but William Yuan combined several ideas and made them more efficient and powerful.  “Regular solar cells are only 2D and only allow light interaction once,” he said.  If he is correct with all calculations, his particular 3D solar cell design would provide 500 times more light absorption than commercially available solar cells and nine times more than cutting-edge 3D solar cells.  His next step is to get a manufacturer and market it.  In the meantime, William Yuan had received a $25,000 scholarship from the Davidson Fellows Award (scholarships for extraordinary young people, 18 and under) for his research.  Let’s take a look at this 12 year old optimal 3D solar cell designer/creator, William Yuan, below:


Below, is a quote from the Davidson Institute For Talent Development, describing William Yuan’s 3D solar cell design:

“In his project, ‘A Highly-Efficient 3-Dimensional Nanotube Solar Cell for Visible and UV Light,’ William invented a novel solar panel that enables light absorption from visible to ultraviolet light. He designed carbon nanotubes to overcome the barriers of electron movement, doubling the light-electricity conversion efficiency. William also developed a model for solar towers and a computer program to simulate and optimize the tower parameters. His optimized design provides 500 times more light absorption than commercially-available solar cells and nine times more than the cutting-edge, three dimensional solar cell.”

I have only three comments:

1.  Moms and Dads out there, get your kids start playing with Legos as early as possible!

2.  Big Thumb Up to all inspiring teachers and mentors out there !

3.  For those of you who  think depopulation as the solution to our earthly problems, think again!


~have a bright and sunny day~

Gathered, written, and posted by sunisthefuture-Susan Sun Nunamaker

Any comments and suggestions are welcomed at sunisthefuture@gmail.com

Please also get into the habit of checking at these sites below for more on solar energy topics:

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18 October

Veolia World Solar Challenge-Day 3, October 18, 2011

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This seems to be a good time to share some fundamentals of “How Does a Solar Car Work?”, for those of you who may be interested.  So, please allow me to use one of RiAus’ (riaus.org.au , RiAus stands for Royal Institute of Australia, with a focus on “Bring Science To People and People To Science”) pamphlets for demonstration purpose.  Please refer to the image “How Does A Solar Car Work?”   For clarification, the solar car design usually emphasizes the aerodynamics and lightness of weight, while maintaining a large surface area to allow the optimum number of solar cells (sometimes solar panels), with low friction tires and minimum wind resistance.  If you’d follow (1) through (5) in the graphics, they are:

(1). It starts with the sun: Solar energy, in the form of photons, radiates from the sun 150 million km from earth

(2). Solar energy becomes electricity: The photons hit solar panels/solar cells mounted on the car.  This energises the electrons in the panels/cells causing them to move.  This movement generates an electric current.

(3). Power storage: Batteries can store extra solar power in the form of chemical energy, which can then be fed to the motor when there is insufficient sunlight.

(Solar car panels/cells have a textured surface to maximize surface area.  This increases the amount of light energy can be harnessed.)

(4). Motor controller: the motor controller regulates how much power is fed to the motor. When the accelerator is pressed, the motor controller changes the frequency of the electricity output.  When the car is moving, electricity can be fed directly from the solar panels to the motor controller.

Fact: the motors unique hub design results in 98% efficiency. At 100km/hr the cars use the same energy as a toaster!

(5). The motor: power reaches the motor, which is contained within the wheel. A typical motor includes strong magnets and a wire coil to carry the current. The interaction between the magnetic force and electric current generates motion.

Any comments and suggestions are welcomed at sunisthefuture@gmail.com

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15 October

Prelude to Veolia World Solar Challenge 2011

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If you are in favor of renewable,  clean, or solar energy, please sign this petition for FIT/CLEAN Program, accessible at http://sunisthefuture.net/?page_id=1065 Thank you very much.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MibIzEE-xOE

This year the Veolia World Solar Challenge will begin on October 16, 2011, from the city of Darwin , Australia, traversing the 3021 km (1,877 mi) to Adelaide through the Australian outback.

World Solar Challenge 2011 route map

This solar-powered car race attracts teams from around the world, most of which are fielded by universities or corporations although some are fielded by high schools. The race has a 20-year history,

Tokai Challenger of Japan's Tokai University, winner of 2009 Global Green Challenge

Nuna 3 of 4-times victors Dutch Nuna Team

spanning nine races, starting the first race in 1987. This year, the first solar racing car that departs and its support fleet will be followed at two-minute intervals by 36 other racing teams from twenty countries.

Before these solar cars are able to participate in the race, each and every one of them has to pass the qualification round of scrutineering process. The static scrutineering process (which took place between Oct. 12, Wed.-Oct. 14, Fri) took place at Foskey Pavilion in Darwin Showgrounds, involves tests for batteries, solar cells, mechanical and electrical components, measurements and overall safety based on the rules and regulations set by the WSC (World Solar Challenge) committee. This is a very friendly competition, encouraging others attempting the same goal (utilizing the sun’s energy to power the vehicle);therefore, the scrutineering process is mainly focused on safety and protection for all involved in the process (drivers/pilots of the solar cars and people around the vehicle).The dynamic scrutineering took place on Oct. 15, Sat., at the Hidden Valley Racetrack in Darwin.

Hidden Valley Motorsports Complex, where dynamic scrutineering or qualification round took place

to determine the order of the cars during the actual race starting on Sunday at Darwin State Square (in front of the Parliament House). The qualification round saw Solar Team Twente (Twente) securing the first starting position in the race, followed by Nuon Solar Team (Nuna 6) and University of Michigan (Quantum). Complete list of 37 qualified solar cars and their respective times (during the qualifying round) can be found in http://www.solarwebsite.nl/en/2011/10/official-qualification-results/ As you can see, the top 10 times are within 11 seconds of one another, indicating that these cars are very close in performance. Historically, reliability is a main concern; therefore, “perhaps only 30% of these cars will be able to complete the whole course.” commented Coordinator Luke Wyman of Veolia WSC,

http://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=qualification+round+world+solar+challenge&aq=f

and more on World Solar Challenge 2011 in the clip below:


 

The idea for the competition originates from Danish-born adventurer Hans Tholstrup. He was the first to circumnavigate the Australian continent in a 16-foot (4.9m) open boat. At a later stage in his life he became involved in various competitions with fuel saving cars and trucks. Already in the 1980s, he became aware of the necessity to explore sustainable energy as a replacement for the limited available fossil fuel. Sponsored by BP, he designed the world’s first solar car, called The Quiet Achiever, and traversed the 4,052 km (2,518mi) between Sydney and Perth in 20 days. That was the precursor of the World Solar Challenge. After the 4th race, he sold the rights to the state of South Australia and leadership of the race was assumed by Chris Selwood. The race was held every three years until 1999 when it was switched to every two years. (World Solar Challenge, Wikipedia)

More will unfold as we continue our reporting on Veolia World Solar Challenge in the coming days….

~have a bright and sunny day~

written and posted by sunisthefuture-Susan Sun Nunamaker, sunisthefuture@gmail.com

Homepage: http://sunisthefuture.net

Any comments and suggestions are welcomed at sunisthefuture@gmail.com

Please also get into the habit of checking at these sites below for more on solar energy topics:

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14 July

Solar Impulse HB-SIA-Solar Plane (1)

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Dear Sunlovers and Fans of Solar Impulse/Solar Plane,

If you are in favor of renewable/CLEAN energy, please sign the petition page showing support for FIT/CLEAN Program at http://sunisthefuture.net/?page_id=1065 Thank you.

Due to popular demand, I am writing an update about the Swiss Solar Impulse’s HB-SIA and will also be posting 2 video clips on Solar Impulse’s HB-SIA.  Those of you who have read the earlier post (March 12, 2011) at Sun Is The Future, Solar Plane-“All that is impossible remains to be achieved.” may remember that through the clean tech of  solar energy, SOLARIMPULSE has brought us not only the physical possibility of  the first manned flight over night  (lasted about 26 hours) by solar powered plane in July 2010, but also the message to educators throughout planet earth the importance of  motivating children and students the pioneering spirit and developing new ways of thinking about future, energy, environment , and online education. The Swiss Solar Impulse HB-SIA, below,

Solar Plane Swiss Solar Impulse HB-SIA, a long-range solar powered plane

undertaken at the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne,  was a project  initiated in 2003 and then promoted by Bertrand Piccard (who co-piloted the first balloon to circle the world non-stop);it has grown to a multi-disciplinary team of 50 specialists from six countries and assisted by about 100 outside advisers.  The prototype HB-SIA has a non-pressurized cockpit, a similar wingspan to the Airbus A340, lithium polymer batteries under the wing, 12,000 photovoltaic cells on the upper wing surface and the horizontal stabilizer generate electricity during the day. These photovoltaic cells and horizontal stabilizer propel the plane and charge the batteries to allow night flight, theoretically enabling the single-seat plane to stay in the air indefinitely.  On July 8, 2010, HB-SIA achieved the world’s first manned 26-hour solar flight, flown by Andre Borschberg (started on July 7, 2010, from an airfield in Payenne, Switzerland).

Stay tuned in for the next episode of the Solar Impulse HB-SIA Solar Plane….

Posted by sunisthefuture-Susan Sun Nunamaker, sunisthefuture@gmail.com

Homepage:  http://sunisthefuture.net http://sunisthefuture.org http://sunisthefuture.com
Any comments and suggestions are welcomed at sunisthefuture@gmail.com

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9 July

Solar Power Evolution

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Dear Readers and Friends,

If you are in favor of renewable/CLEAN energy, please sign the petition page showing support for FIT/CLEAN Program at http://sunisthefuture.net/?page_id=1065 Thank you.

I came across an interesting graph on the evolution of solar power/technology today in an article by Sebastian Anthony in ExtremeTech,

History of Solar Power/Technology

started from the lucky finding by Alexandre Becquerel in 1839,  a current was generated when an electrode in a conductive solution was hit by sunlight . Then came the first solar cell, at 1% efficiency, produced by Charles Fritts in 1883.  It was in 1904, Albert Einstein published a paper on the discovery of the photoelectric effect, followed by a flurry of photoelectirc advances until AT & T Bell Lab created the first modern silicon solar cell in 1954.  Between 1950s and 70s cost (about $250 per watt) and efficiency (10%) were two important factors preventing solar power to be the major power player.  But today, the solar power industry has brought the cost/price per watt down to around $3 and at-home installations are becoming more common.   In 2010, even President Obama ordered the installation of solar panels and a solar hot water heater at the White House. It will simply be a matter of few years when solar power will overtake coal in terms of cost and efficiency. As  storage battery technology advances and the fact that solar power is the much cleaner technology (therefore, at a much lower environmental cost) and the technology least likely to generate warfare among nations, solar power/technology does appear to be the best choice for the future of planet earth.

Posted by sunisthefuture-Susan Sun Nunamaker, sunisthefuture@gmail.com

Homepage:  http://sunisthefuture.net http://sunisthefuture.org

Any comments and suggestions are welcomed at sunisthefuture@gmail.com

Please also get into the habit of checking at these sites below for more on solar energy topics:

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3 April

What Is Solar Cell (7)

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If you are in favor of renewable/CLEAN energy, please sign the petition page showing support for FIT/CLEAN Program at http://sunisthefuture.net/?page_id=1065 Thank you.

By now, dear readers/friends, you are probably wondering how much of the world’s energy usage is based on solar energy. Despite the fact that it is by far the most “clean, safe, abundant, and least likely to contribute to war among nations” form of energy, it is only taking up about 0.5%

World Energy Usage Chart (Note:Solar heat of 0.5%, Wikimedia Commons)

of the world’s energy usage. The reason is cost!  That is why scientists and engineers throughout planet earth are making their greatest effort in figuring out /experimenting with material and ways of applying technology to reduce the cost of solar energy/technology.  Thin film technology reduces the amount of material required to create a solar cell, but it also reduces the energy conversion efficiency.  Nevertheless, thin film silicon cells have become popular due to cost, flexibility, lighter weight, and ease of integration, compared to wafer silicon cells.  In this next and final clip on the series of “What Is Solar Cell”,  you will see CIGS (copper indium gallium selenide. some also call it CIGSS or (di)selenide, but most literatures refer to it as CIGS), a direct-bandgap material, with the highest efficiency (~20%) among thin film materials.

You will find this clip at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SMnx5tFrDDc&feature=related or simply click below:

 

It is encouraging that solar industry had been growing exponentially in recent years and its cost had been driven down tremendously.  In addition to decreasing the cost, increasing the efficiency of the material, and increasing its applications ( building integrated photovoltaics such as roof, window glass, or paint, using thin film solar material will drive down the cost of solar electricity further and eventually be able to get 20% of the energy from solar (forecasted by some scientists and engineers)) , there had been great amount of discussions in various types of incentive programs that may be implemented in the effort of driving down its cost and increasing its economic feasibility.  In the final analysis, in order to increase the percentage of global energy use from solar energy, it is up to all of us earthlings to make every effort in bringing down the cost of solar technology, whether through scientific technological research and development or through incentive programs.  I will reserve the topic on various incentive programs in future posts. Until then, I bid you a clear and sunny day tomorrow~

Posted by sunisthefuture-Susan Sun Nunamaker,sunisthefuture@gmail.com
Homepage: http://sunisthefuture.net http://sunisthefuture.com http://sunisthefuture.org

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2 April

What Is Solar Cell (6)

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If you are in favor of renewable/CLEAN energy, please sign the petition page showing support for FIT/CLEAN Program at http://sunisthefuture.net/?page_id=1065 Thank you.

For these last 2 episodes of the series of discussions on What is Solar Cell, I would like to share these efforts/work at different parts of the world on solar energy.  Solar cells are manufactured primarily in Japan, Germany, Mainland China, Taiwan, and United States, though many other nations have or are acquiring significant solar cell production capacity.  Here we will see some truly amazing advanced solar cell from Israel at:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_O47RiYJiKI&feature=related or simply click below:

Concentrated sunlight has been used to perform useful tasks from the time of ancient China. A legend has it that Archimedes used a “burning glass” to concentrate sunlight on the invading Roman fleet and repel them from Syracuse.  As seen in the video clip,  concentrated solar power are systems that use lenses or mirrors to concentrate a large area of sunlight, or solar thermal energy, onto a small area.  Electrical power is produced when the concentrated light is converted to heat that drives a heat engine (such as a steam turbine) connected to an electrical power generator.

Stay tuned for our next and final episode of What Is Solar Cell.  I hope these posts have proven to be helpful.

Posted by sunisthefuture-Susan Sun Nunamaker, sunisthefuture@gmail.com

Homepage: http://sunisthefuture.net http://sunisthefuture.com http://sunisthefuture.org

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2 April

What Is Solar Cell (5)

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If you are in favor of renewable/CLEAN energy, please sign the petition page showing support for FIT/CLEAN Program at http://sunisthefuture.net/?page_id=1065 Thank you.

Dear readers/friends, I hope you will stay with me for 3 more posts (up to What Is Solar Cell (7)) before we move on to another topic in solar energy. Thank you for your patience.

In the previous post, you have seen that Boron and Phosphorous may be used to as dopping material to be added to Silicon in the process of making semiconductor material for solar cell. But there are also other alternatives.  As a matter of fact, instead of silicon, gallium arsenide (GaAs) is another possibility.  GaAs based multijunction devices are the most efficient solar cells to date, reaching 42.3% by the triple junction metamorphic cell.  High-efficiency multijunction cells were originally developed for applications such as satellites and space exploration.  Triple junction GaAs solar cells were also being used as the power source of the Dutch four-time World Solar Challenge winners Nuna in 2003, 2005, and 2007.

Scientists and engineers are constantly looking for alternatives that would help to increase efficiency and decrease cost.  Most commercially available solar cells are capable of producing electricity for at least 20 years without significant decrease in efficiency.  Typical warranty given by panel manufacturers is for a period of 25-30 years, without having output falling below a specified percentage of the rated capacity. So, there are products and technologies that need to be tested and validated.  In U.S., NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory), located in Golden, Colorado, established in 1974 and began its operation in 1977 as the Solar Energy Research Institute, tests and validates solar technologies.

Keep in mind that there are three reliable certifications of solar equipment: UL, IEEE, and IEC.

  1. UL: Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL) is an independent product safety certification organization established in 1894 and has its headquarters in Northbrook, IL.
  2. IEEE: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE (read I-triple E) is a non-profit professional association dedicated to advancing technological innovation related to electricity. (45% of its members are located outside of US).
  3. IEC: International Electrotechnical Commission is a non-profit, non-governmental international standards organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic, and related technologies.

Now, I have a clip for you at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sRqmTpozPYA or simply click below:

 

Stay tuned at the same bat channel…more will be in store for you…

Please feel free to leave comments or questions.

Posted by sunisthefuture-Susan Sun Nunamaker, sunisthefuture@gmail.com
Homepage: http://sunisthefuture.net http://sunisthefuture.com http://sunisthefuture.org
Any comments and suggestions are welcomed at sunisthefuture@gmail.com

Please also get into the habit of checking at these sites below for more on solar energy topics:

www.sunisthefuture.net

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www.kiva.org/team/sunisthefuture

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