Posts Tagged ‘Sun’

22 August

Total Solar Eclipse on August 21, 2017

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Dear Friends, Visitors/Viewers/Readers,

This is a repost from one of our sister publications, Windermere Sun.

(Please click on red links & note magenta)

You can watch the Total Solar Eclipse Event from: https://www.nasa.gov/eclipselive/#NASA+TV+Public+Channel

Total Solar Eclipse observed from USA on Aug. 21, 2017, with the help of NASA (presented at WindermereSun.com)

Total Solar Eclipse (presented at WindermereSun.com)

Map of the Total Solar Eclipse of Aug. 21, 2017 (Attribution: Wolfgang Strickling, presented at WindermereSun.com)

Chart for Solar Eclipse (Attribution: Fred Espenak of NASA GSFC, presented at WindermereSun.com)

Diamond Ring of the Total Solar Eclipse, last bit of corona ring and last flash of the sun give us the “diamond ring” effect (presented at WindermereSun.com , with the help of NASA)

Diamond Ring of the Total Solar Eclipse, last bit of corona ring and last flash of the sun give us the “diamond ring” effect (presented at WindermereSun.com , with the help of NASA)

Windermere Blue Sunset (credit: Windermere Sun-Susan Sun Nunamaker)
(Please click on red links & note magenta)

You can watch the Total Solar Eclipse Event from: https://www.nasa.gov/eclipselive/#NASA+TV+Public+Channel

Did you drive or fly to one of the cities along the route for observing total solar eclipse? Did you avoid the crowd by watching live stream for the event, or were you simply oblivious of the Total Solar Eclipse event today? There were so many people trying to reserve for flights to one of the cities along the route of total solar eclipse above that a coach plane ticket between DFW (Dallas Fort Worth) to Nashville costed $6000 last week. Hotel rooms were quickly running out that all of the hotel rooms along this route were fully booked last week that the last single room was going for $6000 for 4 nights at Oregon State University area. This is the only reason that I am reporting the event from Florida rather than Oregon State University today. The next total solar eclipse in the USA will be on April 8, 2024, only 2422 days away. The next total solar eclipse outside of the USA will be on July 2, 2019, with the path of totality running through South American countries such as Chile and Argentina, according to NASA. If you missed today’s event, perhaps you’ll be interested in one of these two future events.

Historically, some of the total solar eclipses at:

  • October 22, 2134 B.C.: one of the earliest recorded solar eclipse appeared in Shu Ching, an ancient Chinese book of documents. The ancient Chinese believed that a solar eclipse was the result of a large dragon eating the Sun. It was the job of two royal astronomers Hsi and Ho to predict such events so that people could prepare bows and arrows to fend off the dragon. But Hsi and Ho shirked their duties and got drunk, so they were beheaded by the emperor.
  • May 28, 585 B.C.: A total solar eclipse brought about an unexpected ceasefire between two warring nations, the Lydians and the Medes, fighting for control of Anatolia (modern day Turkey) for five years, according to ancient Greek historian Herodotus. During the Battle of Halys, aka Battle of the Eclipse, the sky suddenly turned dark as the sun disappeared behind the moon. Interpreting this inexplicable phenomenon as a sign that the gods wanted the conflict to end, the soldiers put down their weapon and negotiated for a truce.
  • 29-32 A.D.: Christian gospels say the sky darkened after the crucifixion of Jesus. It is possible that the event may have coincided with a solar eclipse. Historians have tried to pinpoint the death of Jesus, using astronomical records of solar eclipse in the years 29 C.E. or 32 C.E.
  • May 5, 840: Louis the Pious, the third son of Charlemagne, inherited a vast empire in what is modern day France after his father died in 814. His reign was marked by dynastic crisis and rivalry between his sons. Being a deeply religious man, Louis became terrified of punishment from God after witnessing a solar eclipse. According to the legend, he died of fright shortly afterward.
  • May 29, 1919: Sir Arthur Eddington tested Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity during a total solar eclipse. Einstein had theorized that massive objects caused distortions in space and time. Eddington confirmed that starlight bent around the sun by measuring the position of certain stars relative to the eclipse.

 

A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon completely covers the Sun’s disk, as seen in this 1999 solar eclipse. Solar prominences can be seen along the limb (in red) as well as extensive coronal filaments.(Photo Attribution: I, Luc Viatour, Presented at: WindermereSun.com)

 

Chart for Solar Eclipse (Attribution: Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, NASA’s GSFC, Presented at: WindermereSun.com)

Map of Solar Eclipse (presented at: WindermereSun.com)

Map of the Solar Eclipse 2017 USA (created with Eclipse 2017 Android App, Geodata from OpenStreetMap (Attribution: Wolfganag Strickling, Presented at: WindermereSun.com)

Windermere Blue Sunset (credit: Windermere Sun-Susan Sun Nunamaker)

(Please click on red links & note magenta)

How many of you had “observing a Total Solar Eclipse” on your bucket list? It was in totality only within a band across the entire contiguous United States ( covering: Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Nebraska, Kansas, Iowa, Missouri, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina). The last time a total solar eclipse was visible across the entire contiguous United States was during the June 8, 1918 eclipse.

Map of the Solar Eclipse 2017 USA (created with Eclipse 2017 Android App, Geodata from OpenStreetMap (Attribution: Wolfganag Strickling, Presented at: WindermereSun.com), covering: Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Nebraska, Kansas, Iowa, Missouri, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina

A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon’s apparent diameter is larger than the Sun’s, blocking all direct sunlight, turning day into darkness. Totality occurs in a narrow path across Earth’s surface, with the partial solar eclipse visible over a surrounding region thousands of kilometers wide. This eclipse is the 22nd of the 77 members of Saros series 145, which also produced the solar eclipse of August 11, 1999. Members of this series are increasing in duration. The longest eclipse in this series will occur on June 25, 2522 and last for 7 minutes and 12 seconds.

The total eclipse will have a magnitude of 1.0306 and will be visible from a narrow corridor through the United States. It will be first seen from land in the US shortly after 10:15 a.m. PDT at Oregon’s Pacific coast, and then it will progress eastward through Salem, OR, Casper, WY, Lincoln, NE, Kansas City, Nashville, TN, Columbia, SC, and finally Charleston, SC. Total Solar Eclipse will darken skies all the way from Oregon to South Carolina, along a stretch of land about 70 miles (113 kilometers) wide. People who descend upon this “path of totality” for the big event are in for an unforgettable experience. A partial eclipse will be seen for a greater time period, beginning shortly after 9:00 a.m. PDT along the Pacific Coast of Oregon.

The longest duration of totality will be 2 minutes 41.6 seconds at about 37°35′0″N 89°7′0″W in Giant City State Park, just south of Carbondale, Illinois, and the greatest extent (width) will be at 36°58′0″N 87°40′18″W near the village of Cerulean, Kentucky, located in between Hopkinsville, KY and Princeton, KY. This will be the first total solar eclipse visible from the Southeastern United States since the solar eclipse of March 7, 1970, which was only visible from Florida.

 

 


A partial solar eclipse will be seen from the much broader path of the Moon‘s penumbra, including all of North America, northern South America, Western Europe, and some of Africa.

The August 2017 eclipse will be the first with a path of totality crossing the US’s Pacific coast and Atlantic coast since 1918. Also, its path of totality makes landfall exclusively within the United States, making it the first such eclipse since the country’s independence in 1776. (The path of totality of the eclipse of June 13, 1257, was the last to make landfall exclusively on lands currently part of the US.

If you are interested in observing this event (total Solar Eclipse), below, in italics, is excerpt from “Eye Safety During Solar Eclipses” from NASA:

The Sun can be viewed safely with the naked eye only during the few brief seconds or minutes of a total solar eclipse. Partial eclipses, annular eclipses, and the partial phases of total eclipses are never safe to watch without taking special precautions. Even when 99% of the Sun’s surface is obscured during the partial phases of a total eclipse, the remaining photospheric crescent is intensely bright and cannot be viewed safely without eye protection [Chou, 1981; Marsh, 1982]. Do not attempt to observe the partial or annular phases of any eclipse with the naked eye. Failure to use appropriate filtration may result in permanent eye damage or blindness!

Generally, the same equipment, techniques and precautions used to observe the Sun outside of eclipse are required for annular eclipses and the partial phases of total eclipses [Reynolds & Sweetsir, 1995; Pasachoff & Covington, 1993; Pasachoff & Menzel, 1992; Sherrod, 1981]. The safest and most inexpensive of these methods is by projection, in which a pinhole or small opening is used to cast the image of the Sun on a screen placed a half-meter or more beyond the opening. Projected images of the Sun may even be seen on the ground in the small openings created by interlacing fingers, or in the dappled sunlight beneath a leafy tree. Binoculars can also be used to project a magnified image of the Sun on a white card, but you must avoid the temptation of using these instruments for direct viewing.

The Sun can be viewed directly only when using filters specifically designed for this purpose. Such filters usually have a thin layer of aluminum, chromium or silver deposited on their surfaces that attenuates ultraviolet, visible, and infrared energy. One of the most widely available filters for safe solar viewing is a number 14 welder’s glass, available through welding supply outlets. More recently, aluminized mylar has become a popular, inexpensive alternative. Mylar can easily be cut with scissors and adapted to any kind of box or viewing device. A number of sources for solar filters are listed below. No filter is safe to use with any optical device (i.e. – telescope, binoculars, etc.) unless it has been specifically designed for that purpose. Experienced amateur and professional astronomers may also use one or two layers of completely exposed and fully developed black-and-white film, provided the film contains a silver emulsion. Since all developed color films lack silver, they are always unsafe for use in solar viewing.

Unsafe filters include color film, some non-silver black and white film, medical x-ray films with images on them, smoked glass, photographic neutral density filters and polarizing filters. Solar filters designed to thread into eyepieces which are often sold with inexpensive telescopes are also dangerous. They should not be used for viewing the Sun at any time since they often crack from overheating. Do not experiment with other filters unless you are certain that they are safe. Damage to the eyes comes predominantly from invisible infrared wavelengths. The fact that the Sun appears dark in a filter or that you feel no discomfort does not guarantee that your eyes are safe. Avoid all unnecessary risks. Your local planetarium or amateur astronomy club is a good source for additional information.

In spite of these precautions, the total phase (and only the total phase) of an eclipse can and should be viewed without filters. It is crucial that you know when to take off and put back on your glasses; see Eye safety during a total solar eclipse

Two spectacular events signal the boundaries of totality: appearance of the diamond effect and Baily’s beads.

Diamond Ring of the Total Solar Eclipse, last bit of corona ring and last flash of the sun give us the “diamond ring” effect (presented at WindermereSun.com , with the help of NASA)

  • Diamond Ring: it is a product of the final moments of the pre-totality partial phases and their post-totality resurgence.
  • Baily’s Beads: Sir Edmund Halley is credited with observing the first Baily’s beads during the eclipse of April 22, 1715. They were also observed by Maclaurin from Edinburgh during the annular eclipse of March 1, 1737 and by Williams from Revolutionary War America on October 27, 1780 from just outside of the totality. But it was Francis Baily’s widely disseminated description of the phenomenon during the annular eclipse of May 15, 1836, that led to their bearing his name thereafter. It was explained by Baily that shortly before second contact of a total eclipse, the opposing horns of the slender crescent sun begin to converge on one another. At the same time, the tenuous solar atmosphere becomes visible against the darkening sky, shining out around the edge of the moon where the sun has already been covered. The combination of this “ring” of light and the single brilliant “diamond” of sunlight where the horns are converging creates a most striking appearance, the diamond ring. The effect lasts for a very short time. Soon the horns of the solar crescent close completely, and the diamond ring begins to break up, to be replaced by an array of brilliant beads of sunlight caused by the sun shining through valleys and depressions on the moon’s leading limb.

 

Total Eclipse Viewing Events (source: wkipedia), below:

Oregon

Idaho

Wyoming

  • Casper, Wyoming – The Astronomical League, an alliance of amateur astronomy clubs, will hold its annual Astrocon conference, and there will be other public events, called Wyoming Eclipse Festival 2017.

Nebraska

Missouri

Illinois

Kentucky

Tennessee

North Carolina

Georgia

  • Rabun County, Georgia – Multiple events occur across Rabun County, including the OutASight Total Solar Eclipse Viewing Party with astronomers from Georgia State University. Other events will be held at Tallulah Gorge State Park, Black Rock Mountain State Park, and other locations in the county.

South Carolina

Viewing from outside the United States

Canada

A partial eclipse will be visible across the width of Canada, ranging from 89% in Victoria, British Columbia to 11% in Resolute, Nunavut.

Central America, Mexico, Caribbean islands

A partial eclipse will be visible from Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean islands.

Europe

The boundaries of the sunset partial eclipse in Western Europe. Calculation with EclipseDroid with atmospheric refraction.

In northwestern Europe, the eclipse will only be visible as a partial eclipse, in the evening or at sunset. Only Iceland, Ireland and Scotland will see the eclipse from beginning to end; in the rest of the UK, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, France, Spain and Portugal, sunset will occur before the end of the eclipse. In Germany, the beginning of the eclipse will be potentially visible just at sunset only in the extreme northwest of the country. In all regions east of the orange line in the map, the eclipse will be invisible.

Online Viewing Events

 

Gathered, written, and posted by Windermere Sun-Susan Sun Nunamaker
~have a bright and sunny day~

Any comments, suggestions, concerns regarding this post will be welcomed at sunisthefuture@gmail.com

Gathered, written, and posted by sunisthefuture-Susan Sun Nunamaker
Please also get into the habit of checking at these sites below for more on solar energy topics:

www.sunisthefuture.net

www.kiva.org/team/sunisthefuture

www.facebook.com/sunisthefuture

www.pinterest.com/sunisthefuture

www.youtube.com/user/sunisthefuture

www.cafepress.com/sunisthefuture

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30 July

Is “Observing Total Solar Eclilpse on Aug. 21, 2017” Part of Your Bucket List?

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Dear Friends, Visitors/Viewers/Readers,

(Please click on red links & note magenta)

Below, is a re-post from our sister publication, Windermere Sun (of July 25, 2017):

A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon completely covers the Sun’s disk, as seen in this 1999 solar eclipse. Solar prominences can be seen along the limb (in red) as well as extensive coronal filaments.(Photo Attribution: I, Luc Viatour, Presented at: WindermereSun.com)

Dear Friends & Neighbors,

[mc4wp_form id=”12402″]

Chart for Solar Eclipse (Attribution: Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, NASA’s GSFC, Presented at: WindermereSun.com)

Map of Solar Eclipse (presented at: WindermereSun.com)

Map of the Solar Eclipse 2017 USA (created with Eclipse 2017 Android App, Geodata from OpenStreetMap (Attribution: Wolfganag Strickling, Presented at: WindermereSun.com)

Windermere Blue Sunset (credit: Windermere Sun-Susan Sun Nunamaker)

(Please click on red links & note magenta)

How many of you have “observing a Total Solar Eclipse” on your bucket list? Did you know that a total solar eclipse will occur on Monday, August 21, 2017? It will be visible in totality only within a band across the entire contiguous United States ( covering: Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Nebraska, Kansas, Iowa, Missouri, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina). The last time a total solar eclipse was visible across the entire contiguous United States was during the June 8, 1918 eclipse.

Map of the Solar Eclipse 2017 USA (created with Eclipse 2017 Android App, Geodata from OpenStreetMap (Attribution: Wolfganag Strickling, Presented at: WindermereSun.com), covering: Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Nebraska, Kansas, Iowa, Missouri, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina

A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon’s apparent diameter is larger than the Sun’s, blocking all direct sunlight, turning day into darkness. Totality occurs in a narrow path across Earth’s surface, with the partial solar eclipse visible over a surrounding region thousands of kilometers wide. This eclipse is the 22nd of the 77 members of Saros series 145, which also produced the solar eclipse of August 11, 1999. Members of this series are increasing in duration. The longest eclipse in this series will occur on June 25, 2522 and last for 7 minutes and 12 seconds.

The total eclipse will have a magnitude of 1.0306 and will be visible from a narrow corridor through the United States. It will be first seen from land in the US shortly after 10:15 a.m. PDT at Oregon’s Pacific coast, and then it will progress eastward through Salem, OR, Casper, WY, Lincoln, NE, Kansas City, Nashville, TN, Columbia, SC, and finally Charleston, SC. Total Solar Eclipse will darken skies all the way from Oregon to South Carolina, along a stretch of land about 70 miles (113 kilometers) wide. People who descend upon this “path of totality” for the big event are in for an unforgettable experience. A partial eclipse will be seen for a greater time period, beginning shortly after 9:00 a.m. PDT along the Pacific Coast of Oregon.

The longest duration of totality will be 2 minutes 41.6 seconds at about 37°35′0″N 89°7′0″W in Giant City State Park, just south of Carbondale, Illinois, and the greatest extent (width) will be at 36°58′0″N 87°40′18″W near the village of Cerulean, Kentucky, located in between Hopkinsville, KY and Princeton, KY. This will be the first total solar eclipse visible from the Southeastern United States since the solar eclipse of March 7, 1970, which was only visible from Florida.

 

 


A partial solar eclipse will be seen from the much broader path of the Moon‘s penumbra, including all of North America, northern South America, Western Europe, and some of Africa.

The August 2017 eclipse will be the first with a path of totality crossing the US’s Pacific coast and Atlantic coast since 1918. Also, its path of totality makes landfall exclusively within the United States, making it the first such eclipse since the country’s independence in 1776. (The path of totality of the eclipse of June 13, 1257, was the last to make landfall exclusively on lands currently part of the US.

If you are interested in observing this event (total Solar Eclipse), below, in italics, is excerpt from “Eye Safety During Solar Eclipses” from NASA:

The Sun can be viewed safely with the naked eye only during the few brief seconds or minutes of a total solar eclipse. Partial eclipses, annular eclipses, and the partial phases of total eclipses are never safe to watch without taking special precautions. Even when 99% of the Sun’s surface is obscured during the partial phases of a total eclipse, the remaining photospheric crescent is intensely bright and cannot be viewed safely without eye protection [Chou, 1981; Marsh, 1982]. Do not attempt to observe the partial or annular phases of any eclipse with the naked eye. Failure to use appropriate filtration may result in permanent eye damage or blindness!

Generally, the same equipment, techniques and precautions used to observe the Sun outside of eclipse are required for annular eclipses and the partial phases of total eclipses [Reynolds & Sweetsir, 1995; Pasachoff & Covington, 1993; Pasachoff & Menzel, 1992; Sherrod, 1981]. The safest and most inexpensive of these methods is by projection, in which a pinhole or small opening is used to cast the image of the Sun on a screen placed a half-meter or more beyond the opening. Projected images of the Sun may even be seen on the ground in the small openings created by interlacing fingers, or in the dappled sunlight beneath a leafy tree. Binoculars can also be used to project a magnified image of the Sun on a white card, but you must avoid the temptation of using these instruments for direct viewing.

The Sun can be viewed directly only when using filters specifically designed for this purpose. Such filters usually have a thin layer of aluminum, chromium or silver deposited on their surfaces that attenuates ultraviolet, visible, and infrared energy. One of the most widely available filters for safe solar viewing is a number 14 welder’s glass, available through welding supply outlets. More recently, aluminized mylar has become a popular, inexpensive alternative. Mylar can easily be cut with scissors and adapted to any kind of box or viewing device. A number of sources for solar filters are listed below. No filter is safe to use with any optical device (i.e. – telescope, binoculars, etc.) unless it has been specifically designed for that purpose. Experienced amateur and professional astronomers may also use one or two layers of completely exposed and fully developed black-and-white film, provided the film contains a silver emulsion. Since all developed color films lack silver, they are always unsafe for use in solar viewing.

Unsafe filters include color film, some non-silver black and white film, medical x-ray films with images on them, smoked glass, photographic neutral density filters and polarizing filters. Solar filters designed to thread into eyepieces which are often sold with inexpensive telescopes are also dangerous. They should not be used for viewing the Sun at any time since they often crack from overheating. Do not experiment with other filters unless you are certain that they are safe. Damage to the eyes comes predominantly from invisible infrared wavelengths. The fact that the Sun appears dark in a filter or that you feel no discomfort does not guarantee that your eyes are safe. Avoid all unnecessary risks. Your local planetarium or amateur astronomy club is a good source for additional information.

In spite of these precautions, the total phase (and only the total phase) of an eclipse can and should be viewed without filters. It is crucial that you know when to take off and put back on your glasses; see Eye safety during a total solar eclipse

Total Eclipse Viewing Events (source: wkipedia), below:

Oregon

Idaho

Wyoming

  • Casper, Wyoming – The Astronomical League, an alliance of amateur astronomy clubs, will hold its annual Astrocon conference, and there will be other public events, called Wyoming Eclipse Festival 2017.

Nebraska

Missouri

Illinois

Kentucky

Tennessee

North Carolina

Georgia

  • Rabun County, Georgia – Multiple events occur across Rabun County, including the OutASight Total Solar Eclipse Viewing Party with astronomers from Georgia State University. Other events will be held at Tallulah Gorge State Park, Black Rock Mountain State Park, and other locations in the county.

South Carolina

Viewing from outside the United States

Canada

A partial eclipse will be visible across the width of Canada, ranging from 89% in Victoria, British Columbia to 11% in Resolute, Nunavut.

Central America, Mexico, Caribbean islands

A partial eclipse will be visible from Central America, Mexico, and the Caribbean islands.

Europe

The boundaries of the sunset partial eclipse in Western Europe. Calculation with EclipseDroid with atmospheric refraction.

In northwestern Europe, the eclipse will only be visible as a partial eclipse, in the evening or at sunset. Only Iceland, Ireland and Scotland will see the eclipse from beginning to end; in the rest of the UK, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, France, Spain and Portugal, sunset will occur before the end of the eclipse. In Germany, the beginning of the eclipse will be potentially visible just at sunset only in the extreme northwest of the country. In all regions east of the orange line in the map, the eclipse will be invisible.

Online Viewing Events

 

Gathered, written, and posted by Windermere Sun-Susan Sun Nunamaker
More about the community at www.WindermereSun.com

Any comments, suggestions, concerns regarding this post will be welcomed at info.WindermereSun@gmail.com

 

We Need Fair Value of Solar

 

~Let’s Help One Another~

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Please also get into the habit of checking at these sites below for more on solar energy topics:

www.sunisthefuture.net

www.kiva.org/team/sunisthefuture

www.facebook.com/sunisthefuture

www.pinterest.com/sunisthefuture

www.youtube.com/user/sunisthefuture

www.cafepress.com/sunisthefuture

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6 May

Tindo, World’s First Solar eBus

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Dear Friends, Visitors/Viewers/Readers,

Tindo solar powered ebus2 final

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I’ve been wanting to share this piece with you for quite some time now because transportation is responsible for almost a third of the CO2 emissions in most developed nations. So I was thrilled to find out about Tindo, the world’s first Solar Electric Bus that are being used every day by the people of Adelaide, Australia, through the Adelaide City Council’s free Adelaide Connector Bus service.

Tindo, the Kauma Aboriginal name for sun, is the culmination of the Adelaide City Council’s eight-year project to deliver a pure electric community bus. Adelaide’s air conditioned 40-seater and low-maintenance Tindo solar ebus is designed by DesignLine International, a New Zealand company. Green public transportation such as Tindo solar ebus is one of the ways to help mitigate global warming. Tindo is recharged using solar PV system at the Adelaide Central Bus station.  The solar PV system on the Bus Station’s roof is currently Adelaide’s largest grid-connected system, generating 70,000 kWh (or 70 MWh)of zero carbon emissions electricity each year to offset the total energy required to recharge Tindo’s batteries. Much of the funding for this $550,000 solar PV system was  provided by the Australian Government through the Adelaide Solar City program, with the Adelaide City Council also committing significant funding. Adelaide City Council looks forward to the future when a fleet of solar buses will be serving throughout the city of Adelaide.

Gathered, written, and posted by sunisthefuture-Susan Sun Nunamaker

~have a bright and sunny day~

Please also get into the habit of checking at these sites below for more on solar energy topics: www.sunisthefuture.net

www.youtube.com/user/sunisthefuture

www.kiva.org/team/sunisthefuture

www.facebook.com/sunisthefuture

www.pinterest.com/sunisthefuture

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19 March

Solar Eclipse of March 20, 2015 (The Eclipse starts at 07:41 UTC and Ends at 11:50 UTC or 2:41 A.M.-6:50 A.M. EST)

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Dear Friends, Visitors/Viewers/Readers,

Partial & Annular Solar Eclipse (May 20,2012, CC attribution: Brocken Inaglory)

Partial & Annular Solar Eclipse (May 20,2012, CC attribution: Brocken Inaglory)

(Please click on red links & note magenta)

It’s a Total Solar Eclipse in the Faroe Islands and Svalbard (Norway), and a Partial Solar Eclipse in Europe, northern and eastern Asia and northern and western Africa. The eclipse starts at 07:41 UTC and ends at 11:50 UTC on March 20, 2015. UTC stands for Universal Coordinated Time.

Historical records  have shown that solar eclipses were viewed as omens that brings about death and destructions. Therefore, it is understandable that many ancient civilizations tried to understand and predict this celestial phenomenon. Babylonians and ancient Chinese were able to predict solar eclipses as early as 2500 B.C. The word eclipse comes from ekleipsis, the ancient Greek word for being abandoned. The Chinese legend has it that two astrologers, Hsi and Ho, were executed for failing to predict the solar eclipse of Oct. 22, 2134 B.C.E. (because solar eclipse is associated with the health and success of the Emperor and not predicting one means placing the Emperor in danger). Henceforth, the solar eclipse of Oct. 22, 2134, B.C.E. was the oldest solar eclipse ever recorded in human history.  Babylonians, also believing in the omens associated with solar eclipse, would seat substitute kings during solar eclipses so that these temporary kings would face the anger of the Gods instead of the real king. On the other hand, a solar eclipse in 585 B.C.E stopped the war between the Lydians and Medes, who saw the dark skies as a sign to make peace with each other.

As seen from the Earth, a solar eclipse is a type of eclipse that occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and Earth, and the Moon fully or partially blocks (“occults“) the Sun. This can happen only at new moon, when the Sun and the Moon are in conjunction as seen from Earth in an alignment referred to as syzygy. In a total eclipse, the disk of the Sun is fully obscured by the Moon. In partial and annular eclipses, only part of the Sun is obscured.

Partial Solar Eclipse of Oct. 23, 2014 (CC -tomruen) Minneapolis 5-36pm_Ruen1

Partial Solar Eclipse of Oct. 23, 2014 (CC -tomruen) Minneapolis 5-36pm_Ruen1

Annular Solar Eclipse (Middlegate,_Nevada, May 20,_2012) (CC-Smrgeog)

Annular Solar Eclipse (Middlegate,_Nevada, May 20,_2012) (CC-Smrgeog)

Solar eclipse 1999 4 NR ( CC-attribution Luc Viatour : www.Lucnix.be)

Total Solar eclipse 1999 4 NR ( CC-attribution Luc Viatour : www.Lucnix.be)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

If the Moon were in a perfectly circular orbit, a little closer to the Earth, and in the same orbital plane, there would be total solar eclipses every single month. However, the Moon’s orbit is inclined (tilted) at more than 5 degrees to the Earth’s orbit around the Sun (see ecliptic), so its shadow at new moon usually misses Earth. Earth’s orbit is called the ecliptic plane as the Moon’s orbit must cross this plane in order for an eclipse (both solar as well as lunar) to occur. In addition, the Moon’s actual orbit is elliptical, often taking it far enough away from Earth that its apparent size is not large enough to block the Sun totally. The orbital planes cross each other at a line of nodes resulting in at least two, and up to five, solar eclipses occurring each year; no more than two of which can be total eclipses. However, total solar eclipses are rare at any particular location because totality exists only along a narrow path on the Earth’s surface traced by the Moon’s shadow or umbra.

Since looking directly at the Sun can lead to permanent eye damage or blindness (unless the UV index is between 0 to 1), special eye protection or indirect viewing techniques are used when viewing a solar eclipse. It is technically safe to view only the total phase of a total solar eclipse with the unaided eye and without protection; however, this is a dangerous practice, as most people are not trained to recognize the phases of an eclipse, which can span over two hours while the total phase can only last up to 7.5 minutes for any one location. People referred to as eclipse chasers or umbraphiles will travel to remote locations to observe or witness predicted central solar eclipses.

There are four types of solar eclipses:

  • A total eclipse occurs when the dark silhouette of the Moon completely obscures the intensely bright light of the Sun, allowing the much fainter solar corona to be visible. During any one eclipse, totality occurs at best only in a narrow track on the surface of Earth.
  • An annular eclipse occurs when the Sun and Moon are exactly in line, but the apparent size of the Moon is smaller than that of the Sun. Hence the Sun appears as a very bright ring, or annulus, surrounding the dark disk of the Moon.
  • A hybrid eclipse (also called annular/total eclipse) shifts between a total and annular eclipse. At certain points on the surface of Earth it appears as a total eclipse, whereas at other points it appears as annular. Hybrid eclipses are comparatively rare.
  • A partial eclipse occurs when the Sun and Moon are not exactly in line and the Moon only partially obscures the Sun. This phenomenon can usually be seen from a large part of the Earth outside of the track of an annular or total eclipse. However, some eclipses can only be seen as a partial eclipse, because the umbra passes above the Earth’s polar regions and never intersects the Earth’s surface.Partial eclipses are virtually unnoticeable, as it takes well over 90% coverage to notice any darkening at all. Even at 99% it would be no darker than civil twilight.<http://www.heliodyssey.org/eclipse_facts.html>

The diagrams to the right below shows the alignment of the Sun, Moon and Earth during a solar eclipse.

Geometry of a Total Solar Eclipse

Geometry of a Total Solar Eclipse

The dark gray region between the Moon and Earth is the umbra, where the Sun is completely obscured by the Moon. The small area where the umbra touches Earth’s surface is where a total eclipse can be seen. The larger light gray area is the penumbra, in which a partial eclipse can be seen. An observer in the antumbra, the area of shadow beyond the umbra, will see an annular eclipse.

 

(some parts are taken from wikipedia)

Remember not to look directly at the Sun on Solar Eclipse Day, March 20, 2015 between 07:41 UTC and Ends at 11:50 UTC.

~have a bright and sunny day~

Gathered, written, and posted by sunisthefuture-Susan Sun Nunamaker

Any of your comments or suggestions will be welcomed via sunisthefuture@gmail.com“”.

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21 January

We Have The Date & Location of Formula Sun 2015!

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Dear Friends, Visitors/Viewers/Readers,

Words just came down the wire from Evan Stumpges of American Solar Challenge, below:

“We’re thrilled to announce that FSGP 2015 will be returning to Circuit of The Americas in Austin, TX July 26-31, 2015 (Sun-Fri), with the first 3 days being scrutineering and the last 3 days being the track race. Mark your calendars! Additional details to follow as they become available.”

Formula Sun 2015 Regulations

Formula Sun 2015 Regulations

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Please click on Formula Sun 2015 Regulations to review details of the 44-page Formula Sun Grand Prix (FSGP) 2015 Regulations.

The Formula Sun Grand Prix (FSGP) is hosted by the Innovators Educational Foundation. It promotes and celebrates educational excellence and engineering creativity. Fueled by the spirit of friendly competition and teamwork, the FSGP event champions the creative integration of technical and scientific expertise across a range of exciting disciplines (such as engineering, mathematics, sciences, businesses, in multi-disciplined experiential learning and in subsequent careers.) The Formula Sun Grand Prix (FSGP) is an annual track race that is held on grand prix or road style closed courses. This unique style of solar car racing is open to teams from universities and colleges around the world and truly tests the limits of the vehicles in handling curves, braking, and acceleration.

On years when the American Solar Challenge (ASC) is held, FSGP serves as the qualifier race for this competition. Teams must successfully complete FSGP to prove their vehicles before they are allowed to start the cross-country ASC journey. Below, you will see videos (filmed by Michael Nunamaker, interviewed, edited, and uploaded by sunisthefuture-Susan Sun Nunamaker) of some of the solar cars and students that had participated during the ASC (Americal Solar Challenge) 2012:


Part 1 of 2 of this event: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f_wP9nRRfeM

The racing strategy applied during the three day FSGP track event is different than the cross-country ASC event. Driver training, passing strategy, and quick pit stops are crucial for teams racing in FSGP. It’s also essential to have a diligent team member in the timing booth and follow all of the rules of the track to ensure all laps get counted.

The winner of FSGP is determined by the total number of laps completed over the three days of racing. The team that completes the fastest single lap around the track is also recognized in the awards ceremony. If your university is interested in entering the next FSGP competition, please visit the Formula Sun 2015 Regulations of the event.

Please keep in mind that the Registration Deadlines is on p.7 of the Formula Sun Regulations. We will keep you posted of its location and date of the actual race in future post:

  1. Initial registration package is due: March 1, 2015
  2. Technical Documents are due: April 1, 2015
  3. Track registration package is due: April 1, 2015

A special note for Innovators Educational Foundation: It is a 501(c)(3) organization that is supported with 100% volunteers from all across the United States. These volunteers gave/give their time freely, understanding the importance of education and the impact that real experiences have in a learning environment. For information on how you and your organization can support their effort, please visit their sponsorship page.

~have a bright and sunny day~

Gathered, written, and posted by sunisthefuture-Susan Sun Nunamaker

Any of your questions/comments/suggestions will be welcomed at sunisthefuture@gmail.com

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5 December

Hurray For Kaua’i & KIUC-Part II

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Below is an interview with Jim Kelly, the Communication Manager of KIUC (Kaua’i Island Utility Cooperative), who worked tirelessly in preparing for the Koloa Solar Dedication ceremony of the 12 MW (the largest solar farm in the state of Hawaii).  More details of the Koloa Solar Dedication ceremony may be found at Sun Is The Future at www.sunisthefuture.net/2014/12/04.


For better understanding of KIUC, it is worth mentioning that in the 1970s, Kauaʻi burned sugar cane waste to supply most of their electricity. Today, the majority of the Kauaʻi’s energy is produced by importing liquid petroleum. As of 2008, KIUC’s fuel mix was 91.9% fossil fuels, 7.6% hydroelectric, 0.2% biomass, and 0.2% solar. KIUC offers $1,000 rebates to residential customers who have solar water heating systems installed on their homes by Energy Wise Participating Contractors.

With about 30,000-31,000 customers on the island of Kaua’i in Hawaii, KIUC is the only electric cooperative in the state of Hawaii. This 12 MW solar installation of Koloa Solar will enable Kaua’i to stop burning about 1.7 million gallons of fuel oil and reducing 36,000 tons of carbon emission per year. It is with a conscious decision to reduce their dependence on fossil fuel and to make the transition toward the clean and renewable energy future that the island residents invested in this project of $40 million (comparable to building a conventional power plant). With this investment, they will not only be able to lead the way in renewable energy use  on the planet earth now, but it will also benefit future generations of Kaua’i in sustaining the most clean environment for many decades to come.

Some background information about KIUC from Wikipedia below:

Kauaʻi Electric was incorporated in 1905 as a subsidiary of McBryde Sugar in order to construct a 2.4 MW hydroelectric plant on the Wainiha River. Kauaʻi Electric merged with Lihue Plantation’s Waiahi Electric Company early in the 1950s. Kauaʻi Electric became a division of Citizens Utilities Company in 1969. In the late 1990s, Citizens Utilities announced its intentions to divest from the electric utility business and a group of business leaders from Kauaʻi joined to found the Kauaʻi Island Utility Cooperative. KIUC purchased Kauaʻi Electric Company on 1 November 2002 for $215 million.

In December 2009, KIUC participated in hearings regarding its plan to minimize the effects its operations have on three endangered Hawaiian birds, the ʻUaʻu, the ʻaʻo, and the Band-rumped Storm-Petrel

Yes, Kaua’i is definitely blessed with island residents who aim to live in harmony and spirit of conservation with Mother Nature. We will look forward to hearing/reading more about Kaua’i experience in the pursuit of a Clean and Renewable Energy Future!

~have a bright and sunny day~

gathered, posted, and uploaded by sunisthefuture-Susan Sun Nunamaker and filmed by Michael Nunamaker

More related posts:

1. A Chat With KIUC On The Solar Paradise of Kaua’i

2. Kauai Is Going Strong With Solar in 2012-Be Empowered by Going Solar

3. Kauai Leading The Way For Solar In Hawaii

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12 August

Mayor Dyer’s Climate & Energy Summit on Wed., Aug. 13, 2014

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Dear Friends, Visitors/Viewers/Readers,

Mayor Dyer's Climate & Energy Summit 2014 (credit: Orlando Mayor Dyer's Office)

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Did you know that Orlando Mayor Buddy Dyer will be joining global and national experts in climate action on Wed., Aug. 13, 2014, to discuss best practices and solutions to support economic growth and a sustainable energy future for the city of Orlando, the Central Florida region, and the state of Florida? This Mayor Dyer’s Climate & Energy Summit will take place at Amway Center between 8:00-11:00 A.M., Dex Imaging Room. More than 200 community, business, nonprofit and public sector leaders will also learn first hand how to join with businesses and governments across the U.S. in how to achieve positive results from employing the latest innovative technologies and strategies in climate action and sustainable energy. The event is part of the Community Initiative, Green Works Orlando Initiative. This is Orlando’s comprehensive vision to insure Orlando to become one of the most environmentally friendly, economically and socially vibrant communities in the nation. I’ll be there to learn what I can and will share it with you later.

~have a bright and sunny day~

Gathered, written, and posted by sunisthefuture-Susan Sun Nunamaker

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27 July

Anti-Dumping Tariffs Hurt Americans More Than It Helps! Please Let The SunShine In For American Solar Workers & American Consumers- Drop the Anti-Dumping Tariffs!

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Please let the SunShine In For American Solar Workers & Consumers by ridding the Anti-Dumping Tariffs! The Anti-Dumping Tariffs Hurts Americans More Than It Helps!(credit: sunisthefuture-Susan Sun Nunamaker)

Please allow me to share with you the reaction from American companies (and American Consumers, yours truly included!) toward the new anti-dumping tariffs, below, recently released from CASE (Coalition for Affordable Solar Energy).

New Anti-Dumping Tariffs Will Slow the Growth of U.S. Solar Industry
American companies demand negotiated solution to trade litigation to avoid further damage

Washington, DC – The U.S. Department of Commerce today imposed new anti-dumping tariffs as high as 165.04% on imports of solar products from China and 44.18% on imports from Taiwan. In response to the announcement, Jigar Shah, president of the Coalition for Affordable Solar Energy (CASE) released the following statement:

“Today’s determination is another unnecessary obstacle for the U.S. solar industry that will hinder the deployment of clean energy by raising the prices of solar products. Due to these tariffs, previously viable projects will go unbuilt, American workers will go unhired and consumers that could have saved money through solar energy may not be able to benefit.

“CASE members are particularly disappointed that SolarWorld’s request to expand the scope of products affected by the solar dispute remains under consideration by the Department of Commerce. Accepting a broader scope would disregard decades of legal precedent that define scope using the ‘single country of origin’ and ‘substantial transformation’ trade rules. The proposed new scope is also fundamentally inconsistent with the Department’s own previous determination in the 2012 solar cell dispute.

“We urge SolarWorld AG to work with the U.S. solar industry and choose to end their continued litigation in favor of a win-win solution like the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA) settlement proposal. CASE members, which represent the industry majority, demand a solution that ends uncertainty in the marketplace by preventing further trade litigation and that allows solar power to compete cost-effectively with traditional energy sources, thus enabling the market’s further growth. To aid in this process, we ask President Obama to make resolving the solar trade dispute a priority on his clean energy agenda and convene the parties for negotiations.”

Reactions from the U.S. Solar Industry

Thanks to lower product costs spurred by thriving global trade and technology innovations, the U.S. solar industry grew at a record 20 percent clip in 2013 and added over 23,000 new jobs, according to the 2013 National Solar Jobs Census. Across the country, the solar industry now employs over 142,000 Americans, seventy percent of which are employed downstream in the system installation, sales, distribution and project development sectors. Solar product manufacturing remains robust, employing over 29,000 Americans, but the narrow solar cell manufacturing industry that would benefit from these tariffs represents less than 2 percent of overall U.S. solar employment.

Ron Corio, President of Array Technologies, based in Albuquerque, NM and representing over 100 jobs said, “As a U.S. solar manufacturing company, we’re very disappointed in today’s anti-dumping determination. By increasing the price of solar power through tariffs, SolarWorld is shrinking the market for our products here in the United States and punishing successful U.S. solar businesses. Our company is proof that American solar manufacturing jobs will decrease under these special trade protections.”

John Morrison, COO of Strata Solar, based in Chapel Hill, NC and representing over 1,000 jobs said, “Due to their scale, the utility and large commercial solar sectors are particularly sensitive to the uncertainty and price increases caused by these tariffs. Until this dispute is resolved, our industry will build fewer projects and install less solar. It’s time to end the litigation, negotiate a solution and put more Americans back to work.”

Ocean Yuan, Founder and CEO of Grape Solar, based in Eugene, OR said, “My company assembles and sells complete solar energy kits directly to customers and in major retail stores across the country. The number one reason customers cite when switching to solar energy is cost savings, but these misguided tariffs are inflating prices. A negotiated solution to this dispute will ensure the continued growth of our industry and small businesses like mine.”

For more information about CASE or to join the majority of the U.S. industry in opposition to these tariffs, please visit us at www.affordablesolarusa.org.

###

Contact:

Steven Kirsch
skirsch@podesta.com
202.879.9320

About the Coalition for Affordable Energy (CASE):

CASE is a 501(c)4 organization whose purpose is to educate the Administration, Congress, the American solar industry and the public about the impact of protectionism on the affordability of solar energy and the American workforce.  Its primary focus is to show decision, policy, and opinion-makers that the majority of pro-solar Americans opposes the SolarWorld petition, as it will result in the denial of affordable solar energy to a nation whose demand for clean and renewable energy is higher than ever before.

________________________________________________________________________________________

Heavy Anti-Dumping Tariffs violate the Unites States’ commitments to WTO (World Trade Organization) rules, hurt American solar workers, and slows the deployment of clean energy.

Please Let The SunShine In For the American Solar Workers & American Consumers! Please Help To Rid of Anti-Dumping Tariffs! Please talk/write to your Senators, Representatives, Congress-person(s), Any/Every One! Don’t Let Them Take Our Sunshine Away!

The sentiment is best expressed by this nostalgic tune, video below:


______________________________________________________________________________________

~have a bright and sunny day~

Gathered, editorialized, and posted by sunisthefuture-Susan Sun Nunamaker

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25 July

The Ever Expanding Gehrlicher Solar

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With the ever-expanding solar industry, one finds more and more internationally operated photovoltaic company such as Gehrlicher Solar, a company from Germany, with subsidiaries and joint ventures on four continents (including France, India, Spain, South Africa, and Romania). Gehrlicher Solar, one of the most experienced photovoltaic companies in Europe,  is founded in 1994, that develops, plans, builds, finances, and operates solar power plants for ground mounting and for roofs, from private houses to multi-megawatt systems. Gehrlicher Solar also plans, sets up, and manages profit-oriented photovoltaic funds and private placements for private and institutional investors. As the solar industry evolves from solely-Save Our Planet Solution into multi-billion dollar with long-term profitability industry, services provided by Gehrlicher Solar becomes more and more relevant every day.

Gehrlicher Solar was acquired by the M + W Group last year and has leveraged the parent company’s financial strength and global reach and built on its already solid reputation as one of the foremost engineering, procurement, construction, operations, and maintenance (EPC O&M) firms in the commercial and utility scale solar market. In 2013, Gehrlicher/M+W more than doubled its annual project installation rate to 82 MW and continued  with a robust growth trajectory in the U.S. and Latin America. Gehrlicher/M+W is expanding its capabilities, leading in the integration of energy storage, hybrid power generation, and grid stabilization solutions. Below is an interview with the Sr. Director of Marketing David Hague of Gehrlicher Solar during InterSolar North America 2014, on July 9, 2014, overlooking Yerba Buena Gardens:


 

Director Hague discusses various emerging market opportunities within the solar industry: from  PV + storage technology, control technology stabilizing the grid, to the fact that solar is now cost competitive with the coal (cheapest fossil fuels technology), and the fact that solar is a much easier generating-asset to permit and build than any other generating asset. Solar is very reliable and secure asset.

For further inquiry regarding planning a photovoltaic system or searching for potential partnership with Gehrlicher Solar, please contact:

Gehrlicher Solar Services GmbH
Feldkirchener Str. 2
85540 Haar
Germany

T +49 89 420792-100
F +49 89 420792-110
contact@gehrlicher.com

~have a bright and sunny day~

related link/video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T-cPiwG-Dfg

Gathered, written,  and posted by sunisthefuture-Susan Sun Nunamaker

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23 July

Nuance Energy Group Realizing Potential For Sun Power at California Landfills/Brownfields !

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I wish I had asked a lot more questions during this particular interview with the president and founder of Nuance Energy Group, Brian C. Boguess. On July 9, 2014, above the Yerba Buena Gardens, during InterSolar North America 2014, Mr. Brian Boguess had much to share about various mechanisms in securing  rapid solar deployment in California and beyond.

Mr. Boguess started the talk by introducing SunPods Power Platform systems, (manufactured by Nuance Energy Group), which are ballasted ground-based solar racking systems for on grid and off grid solar applications. These units are made of a heavy gauge, cold rolled steel frame with a galvanized standard G-90 finish, with proprietary racking containing solar panels and inverters and power adjustable legs accommodating uneven terrain (engineered to 23 degree slope). Nuance Energy assembles these solar units off site, set units in specified site location and level each solar array, whereas certified partners finish installation of BOS (balance of system) component, wiring and connect to the grid. The wonderful thing about SunPods Power Platform units is that these units deploy and install in minutes and help to avoid prevailing wage cost (Davis Bacon Act) on municipal, government and military projects!  These self-ballasted engineering systems eliminate ground penetration and is the solar application recently proven and released (2013) by a 2-year California Energy Commission (CEC) PIER (Public Interest Energy Research) Program report on solar PV development for California closed landfills. These SunPods PowerPlatform units are modular in design, and connect to scale for large solar projects. Some of its key markets are: agriculture, remote mining operations, international export, emergency disaster preparedness, shared community solar farms and rural residential projects. Video below:


The exciting part of the conversation is in finding out from Mr. Boguess that there are 225 closed landfills in California occupying 35,000 acres of land (presently not economically viable for traditional development) with potential of becoming utility scale solar farms! Currently there are 74 landfill sites within CA producing electricity from the landfill generated methane gas in micro-turbines. There are also 1,262 contaminated sites occupying over 2 million acres in CA. Just think of all of these Solar Potential waiting to be tapped! We will be looking forward to seeing/hearing more Sun Power being tapped from these underutilized brownfields/landfills via SunPods Power Platform systems!

~have a bright and sunny day~

Gathered, written, and posted by sunisthefuture-Susan Sun Nunamaker

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